Oil painting – from old masters to modern
Also paints with a transparency effect were invented, thanks to which the previous paint layers are translucent, and I get a glow – a glaze technique.
Artists of that era studied the chemical properties of oil paints in order to properly apply a layer and prevent their damage in the future.
The 14th millennium for Holland and Germany was marked by the birth of a special form of oil painting.
With the help of the artist Jan van Eyck, painting acquired brilliance and brightness, thanks to which everyone believed in the existence of some kind of secret technique.
His method, like the Dutch as a whole, consisted in transparent writing on a primed surface, the picture was carried out gradually, piece by piece. As the varnish was added to the oil mixture, the painting acquired luster and luminescence.
Over time, the method was adopted by the Italians, Antonello da Messina became the pioneer.
One of the techniques of the Renaissance era that Michelangelo used was a combination of tempera paints that covered the first layer of the painting and a lacquer coating of the finished work.
In the 16-17 thousand. Artists continued to improve these techniques in order to achieve even better glow and get a 3d effect.
In Venice, bloomed a new phase of oil painting, with Titian at the head. The classic method with its different variations improved Rembrandt, Rubens and Velasquez.
In 19 thousand there were decisive changes in oil painting.4
During this period, the Impressionists abandoned the gradual creation of paintings, according to the methods of the old masters, in favor of the continuous painting of paintings.
This was partly due to the appearance and popularization of painting in the open air, which requires quick work on the painting. Since then, the study of landscapes, nature has become impossible without performing etudes.
Etude – this is usually a small piece made by the artist from nature, in the open air (nature), for a short period of time, and at one time. The materials in the work on the etude can be both paints and pencils or any other graphic material.
One of the main objectives of such works is to convey the state of nature at a particular moment. Also etudes are an indispensable creative material for future paintings.
Although oil painting first appeared between 5–9 thousand (in western Afghanistan), it gained popularity only in 15 thousand. But soon, oil painting became the leading technology in the creation of works of art.
Starting its spread in northern Europe among the early Dutch artists, and continuing it in the Renaissance, oil painting almost completely indispensable creative supplanted tempera painting in Europe.
Oil Painting Materials
Traditionally, canvas for paintings is made from flax, but since its price is quite high, cotton is becoming increasingly popular.
At first, the artists made wooden frames, the so-called “uncouplers” or “screeds”. The difference between the first and second is that the cams can be adjusted a little, while the screeds have a rigid structure that cannot be adjusted.
Further, the canvas is stretched onto a subframe and attached (with nails or brackets) to the side edge of the subframe.
Despite the fact that many materials are suitable for coating, such as: linoleum, wood panel, paper, slate, pressed wood, cardboard., The most popular material, from 16 thousand more, is considered a canvas, although many artists, starting from 17 thousand and still, use panels.
The panel is considered more expensive, it is harder, more difficult to transport, prone to deformation and cracking in poor conditions. But among the advantages is the absolute 6th hardness of the wooden panel.
Traditionally, artists independently produced their paints with raw pigments, mixed them and diluted them, which greatly complicated their compactness.
The situation changed at the end of 1800, when the colors in the tubes were widely used.
Most often for the application of paint brushes are used.
Brushes are made from a variety of materials to achieve different effects. For example, brushes made from pig bristles are used for applying paints in a thick layer and greasy strokes. The brush and hair of the ferret and mongoose are smooth and smooth strokes, and thus they are ideal for working on a portrait, as well as for fine writing.
The most valuable are the sable fur tassels, which are made from the tail of the Siberian sable.
In the past few decades, synthetic brushes have gained popularity due to their reliability and low price.
In addition to brushes, artists use various materials and methods: rags, sponges, cotton tampons, and even fingers.
The advantages of oil painting:
– Oil painting technique is one of the easiest; thanks to which, any person who does not have special knowledge will be able to paint a picture with the help of oil paints, connecting his imagination.
– Due to the fact that oil paints dry slowly, they are easily mixed both on the palette and on the canvas.